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                                                 Neoclassical Economics
1. The most remarkable feature of neoclassical economics is that it reduces many broad categories of market phenomena to considerations of individual choice and, in this way, suggests that the science of economics can be firmly grounded on the basic individual act of subjectively choosing among alternatives.
2. Neoclassical economics began with the so-called marginalist revolution in value theory that emerged toward the end of the nineteenth century. Strictly speaking, neoclassical economics is not a school of thought (in the sense of a well-defined group of economists following a single great master) but more a loose amalgam of subschools of thought, each revolving around such acknowledged masters as Alfred Marshall in England, Leon Walras in France, and Carl Menger in Austria.
3. In England there was established the Cambridge school a variant of neoclassical economics that stressed continuity with the past achievements of the classical school. In France, the general equilibrium school was founded in 1874. This subschool investigated the mathematical conditions under which all markets could be in equilibrium simultaneously. The Austrian subschool focused on the essential problems of economic organization.
4. What these subschools have in common is the importance they attach to explaining the coordinating features of market processes in terms of plans and subjective evaluations carried out by individuals in the market subject to the constraints of technological knowledge, social custom and practice, and scarcity of resources.
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                                                    Market Economies
1. In a true market economy the government plays no role in the management of the economy, the government does not intervene in it. The system is based on private enterprise with private ownership of the means of production and private supplies of capital, which can be defined as surplus income available for investment in new business activities. Workers are paid wages by employers according to how skilled they are and how many firms wish to employ them. They spend their wages on the products and services they need. Consumers are willing to spend more on products and services, which are favoured. Firms producing these goods will make more profits and this will persuade more firms to produce these particular goods rather than less favoured ones.
2. Thus, in a market economy consumers decide what is to be produced. Consumers will be willing to pay high prices for products they particularly desire. Firms, which are privately owned, see the opportunity of increased profits and produce the new fashionable and favoured products.
3. Such a system is, at first view, very attractive. The economy adjusts automatically to meet changing demands. No planners have to be employed, which allows more resources to be available for production. Firms tend to be highly competitive in such an environment. New advanced products and low prices are good ways to increase sales and profits. Since all firms are privately owned they try to make the largest profits possible.
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                                                    Mixed economies
1. A mixed economy contains elements of both market and planned economies. At one extreme we have a command economy, which does not allow individuals to make economic decisions, at the other extreme we have a free market, where individuals exercise considerable economic freedom of choice without any government restrictions. Between these two extremes lies a mixed economy.
2. In mixed economies some resources are controlled by the government whilst others are used in response to the demands of consumers. Technically, all the economies of the world are mixed. Some countries are nearer to command economies, while others are closer to free market economies.
3. The aim of mixed economies is to avoid the disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer. So, in a mixed economy the government and the private sector interact in solving economic problems. The state controls the share of the output through taxation and transfer payments and intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defence, while private firms produce cars, furniture, electrical items and similar, less essential products.
4. The UK is a country with mixed economy. Some services are provided by the state (for example, health care and defence) whilst a range of privately owned businesses offer other goods and services.
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An American civil rights leader who fought through nonviolent action is …
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Canada gained its independence from Britain in …
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One of Canada’s prominent national symbols is the …
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                                  Landmark Inventions of the Millennium
1. The last 1,000 years have produced an incredible number and variety of scientific and technological breakthroughs – but which of these were the most important? Narrowing a list of the thousands of inventions made since the year 1000 to the ten greatest requires some exact criteria. The qualifying inventions either provided radically new ways to do an important job, or they made possible tasks that were previously unimagined. Their impact was felt, if not right away then eventually, by a large portion of humanity. These developments have made possible significant new technological innovations and scientific discoveries. And finally, they have had an enduring effect on the world.
2. The inventions that meet these criteria, in chronological order, are the compass, the mechanical clock, the glass lens, the printing press, the steam engine, the telegraph, electric power, wireless communications, antibiotics, and the transistor. Missing from this list are many extremely significant technological advances, including the airplane, telephone, automobile, and computer. In many cases these inventions were omitted because they are based on earlier developments or breakthroughs.
3. In considering the ten most significant inventions of the past 1,000 years, a subtle distinction must be made: the difference between «invention» and «discovery» is not as clear as one might think. A discovery can be as simple as the observation of a previously unnoticed phenomenon, while an invention is a human-devised machine, tool, or apparatus that did not previously exist.
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                                                         Fashion
1. The concept of fashion implies a process of style change, because fashions in dress, as well as in furniture and other objects, have taken very different forms at different times in history. Most people follow fashion to some extent, because fashion refers to much more than the haute couture, the exclusive and expensive clothing produced by leading designers. Even schoolchildren are aware that fashions exist. Nevertheless, we do tend to distinguish between basic clothing, such as blue jeans, parkas and T-shirts, and the latest trendy fashions created by fashion designers. Fashion reflects the society of which it is a part. It has been influenced by wars, conquests, laws, religion, and the arts. Individual personalities have also had an impact on fashion. Royalty and heads of states have set fashion, and in the 20th century media stars have emerged as leaders of fashion. French writer Anatole France said that if he could come back to Earth 100 years after his death and have only one thing to read, he would choose a fashion magazine because that would show him the way people lived.
2. Fashion also has its critics, who have at times denounced fashion as irrational, frivolous, tyrannical, and immoral. Why should pink be in fashion one season and grey the next season? Why do people follow fashion like sheep when they have enough clothes already? A common accusation is that fashion designers accelerate fashion change to create new business. Yet no new fashion succeeds until people are ready to accept it. The final decision about what to buy, or whether to buy anything at all, belongs to the consumer. Ultimately, fashions change because many people like new and different styles.
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Bids had to be in by 6.00 and we put ours in ten minutes before the …
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                                                        Renaissance
1. Renaissance, literally «rebirth», is the period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages, traditionally held to have been characterized by a rise of interest in classical learning and values. The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents, the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, the decline of the feudal system and the growth of commerce, and the invention or application of such potentially powerful innovations as paper, printing, the mariner’s compass,and gunpowder. To the scholars and thinkers of the day, however, it was primarily a time of the revival of classical learning and wisdom after a long period of cultural decline and stagnation.
2. The term Middle Ages was coined by scholars in the 15th century to designate the interval between the downfall of the classical world of Greece and Rome and its rediscovery at the beginning of their own century, a revival in which they felt they were participating. Indeed, the notion of a long period of cultural darkness had been expressed by Petrarch even earlier. Events at the end of the Middle Ages, particularly beginning in the 12th century, caused a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations that culminated in the Renaissance. These included the increasing failure of the Roman Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Empire to provide a stable and unifying framework for the organization of spiritual and material life, the rise in importance of city-states and national monarchies, the development of national languages, and the breakup of the old feudal structures.
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                                                      Anthropology
1. Anthropology is the holistic «science of man». The discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences, humanities, and human biology. Anthropology includes archaeology, prehistory, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, social and cultural anthropology, ethnology and ethnography. The word anthropos is from the Greek for «human being» or «person». Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as «the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences».
2. The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called «primitive» in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of «inferior». Today, most anthropologists use terms such as «less complex» societies or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as «hunter-gatherer» or «forager» or «simple farmer» to refer to humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk (ethnos) remaining of great interest within anthropology.
3. The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a particular folk or people in detail, using biogenetic, archaeological, and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, and other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard. It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture.
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Lady of the Snows is another name for …
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The first woman to hold the office of prime minister of Great Britain was …
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An English musician one of the founding members of The Beatles is …
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                                                           Family
1. The family, a basic social group united through bonds of kinship or marriage, has been present in all societies. Ideally, the family provides its members with protection, companionship, security, and socialization. The structure of the family and the needs that the family fulfils vary from society to society. The nuclear family – two adults and their children – is the main unit in some societies. In others, it is a subordinate part of an extended family, which also consists of grandparents and other relatives. A third family unit is the single-parent family, in which children live with an unmarried, divorced, or widowed mother or farther.
2. Historical studies have shown that family structure has been less changed by urbanization and industrialization than was once supposed. The nuclear family was the most prevalent pre-industrial unit and is still the basic unit of social organization. The modern family differs from earlier traditional forms, however, in its functions, composition, and life cycle and in the roles of husbands and wives.
3. The only function of the family that continues to survive all change is the provision of affection and emotional support by and to all its members, particularly infants and young children. Specialized institutions now perform many of the other functions that were once performed by the agrarian family: economic production, education, religion, and recreation. Jobs are usually separate from the family group; family members often work in different occupations and in locations away from the home. Education is provided by the state or by private groups. The family is still responsible for the socialization of children.
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The process of inheriting norms, customs and ideologies that provides the individual with the skills and habits necessary for participating within their own society is …
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                                                        Renaissance
1. Renaissance, literally «rebirth», is the period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages, traditionally held to have been characterized by a rise of interest in classical learning and values. The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents, the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, the decline of the feudal system and the growth of commerce, and the invention or application of such potentially powerful innovations as paper, printing, the mariner’s compass,and gunpowder. To the scholars and thinkers of the day, however, it was primarily a time of the revival of classical learning and wisdom after a long period of cultural decline and stagnation.
2. The term Middle Ages was coined by scholars in the 15th century to designate the interval between the downfall of the classical world of Greece and Rome and its rediscovery at the beginning of their own century, a revival in which they felt they were participating. Indeed, the notion of a long period of cultural darkness had been expressed by Petrarch even earlier. Events at the end of the Middle Ages, particularly beginning in the 12th century, caused a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations that culminated in the Renaissance. These included the increasing failure of the Roman Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Empire to provide a stable and unifying framework for the organization of spiritual and material life, the rise in importance of city-states and national monarchies, the development of national languages, and the breakup of the old feudal structures.
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His advice on investing the money was …
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Tom’s away at the moment. He’s _______ holiday in France.
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At the end of program of instruction the teacher must _______ its results before moving to the next cycle of teaching events.
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The Palace which has never been the official London residence of the English Sovereigns is …
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Canada is one of the world’s leading ________ producers and exporters.
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A branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality – that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, justice, etc. is …
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He turned _____at the very end of the party when nobody expected him to appear.
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Bids had to be in by 6.00 and we put ours in ten minutes before the …
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Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации общения.
A: «Would you wait half an hour, please?»
B: «____________».
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If you need to ________ teacher’s attention, just put your hand up.
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There were ______ interesting people at the party last night.
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He has been doing exercises since five o’clock and he _______ ten so far.
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The staff of our hospital includes qualified …
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Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации общения.
Passenger: «I have only pounds. Can you give me change?»
Bus Driver: «_______________».
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Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации общения.
Dean: «_________________».
Teacher (subordinate): «So am I».
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Great Britain is famous for the art of ______ dictionaries.
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Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации общения.
A: «Many happy returns of the day, Mary! Here’s your birthday present».
B: «__________________».
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Children are allowed to use the swimming pool _______ they are with an adult.
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Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации общения.
Professor: «Revise Chapter 5 before testing».
Student: «_______________».
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St. Bernard dogs are named after a monastery high up in …
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How many means of __________ do you use on a regular basis?
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They managed to buy the equipment for less than the asking …
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The teacher will assess your paper only after you ________ it.
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Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации общения.
Secretary: «Mr Jensen to see you Mr Green».
Manager: «_______________».
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You ________ wash the car. The paint is still wet.
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Before ________ anything you should ask the price.
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Выберите реплику, наиболее соответствующую ситуации общения.
Agent: «South-West Airways. Myra Davis speaking».
Customer: «______________».
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The two major parties in the US are the …
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Lady of the Snows is another name for …
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