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                                                        Renaissance
1. Renaissance, literally «rebirth», is the period in European civilization immediately following the Middle Ages, traditionally held to have been characterized by a rise of interest in classical learning and values. The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents, the substitution of the Copernican for the Ptolemaic system of astronomy, the decline of the feudal system and the growth of commerce, and the invention or application of such potentially powerful innovations as paper, printing, the mariner’s compass,and gunpowder. To the scholars and thinkers of the day, however, it was primarily a time of the revival of classical learning and wisdom after a long period of cultural decline and stagnation.
2. The term Middle Ages was coined by scholars in the 15th century to designate the interval between the downfall of the classical world of Greece and Rome and its rediscovery at the beginning of their own century, a revival in which they felt they were participating. Indeed, the notion of a long period of cultural darkness had been expressed by Petrarch even earlier. Events at the end of the Middle Ages, particularly beginning in the 12th century, caused a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations that culminated in the Renaissance. These included the increasing failure of the Roman Catholic Church and the Holy Roman Empire to provide a stable and unifying framework for the organization of spiritual and material life, the rise in importance of city-states and national monarchies, the development of national languages, and the breakup of the old feudal structures.

 discovery and exploration of new continents


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Утверждение «The period of the Renaissance is remarkable for the great achievements in geography, such as the…» («Период Ренессанса замечателен великими достижениями в географии, такими как…») следует закончить вариантом ответа «discovery and exploration of new continents» («открытие и исследование новых континентов»), так как именно это утверждение соответствует содержанию текста.
Согласно тексту: «The Renaissance also witnessed the discovery and exploration of new continents…» («Ренессанс также был свидетелем открытия и исследования новых континентов…») (фрагмент 1).

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